What Are Tautologies And Contradictions?

What is a tautological theory?

In logic, a tautology (from Greek: ταυτολογία) is a formula or assertion that is true in every possible interpretation.

An example is “x=y or x≠y”.

(falsum) representing an arbitrary contradiction; in any symbolism, a tautology may be substituted for the truth value “true”, as symbolized, for instance, by “1”..

What does V mean in truth tables?

v” means “or”. ( X v Y) is true when X is true (no matter what Y is). It is also true when Y is true (no matter what X is). The only way it is false is if *both* X *and* Y are false. ”

What is an example of logical?

The definition of logic is a science that studies the principles of correct reasoning. An example of logic is deducing that two truths imply a third truth. An example of logic is the process of coming to the conclusion of who stole a cookie based on who was in the room at the time.

What do you call a person who contradicts himself?

A hypocrite. Cambridge[1] dictionary defines ‘hypocrite’ as, “someone who says that they have particular moral beliefs but behaves in a way that shows these are not sincere” An example[2] of a hypocrite is a person who says they care about the environment, but are constantly littering.

How do I know if I have tautology?

If you are given any statement or argument, you can determine if it is a tautology by constructing a truth table for the statement and looking at the final column in the truth table. If all of the truth values in the final column are true, then the statement is a tautology.

What does tautological mean?

noun, plural tau·tol·o·gies. needless repetition of an idea, especially in words other than those of the immediate context, without imparting additional force or clearness, as in “widow woman.” an instance of such repetition. Logic. a compound propositional form all of whose instances are true, as “A or not A.”

Which is or that is?

In a defining clause, use that. In non-defining clauses, use which. Remember, which is as disposable as a sandwich bag. If you can remove the clause without destroying the meaning of the sentence, the clause is nonessential and you can use which.

Why are tautologies bad?

The standard criticism of tautologies goes like this: because of the the fact that tautologies are necessarily true, they do not tell us anything new about the world. They cannot possibly be wrong; therefore, they do not add to our knowledge. They are redundancies, and they ultimately do not need to be stated.

What is the opposite of tautology?

tautology. Antonyms: conciseness, brevity, laconism, compression. Synonyms: verbosity, redundancy, needless, repetition, pleonasm, reiteration.

Can contradictions be true?

Dialetheism (from Greek δι- di- ‘twice’ and ἀλήθεια alḗtheia ‘truth’) is the view that there are statements which are both true and false. More precisely, it is the belief that there can be a true statement whose negation is also true. Such statements are called “true contradictions”, dialetheia, or nondualisms.

What is a contradiction logic?

A logical contradiction is the conjunction of a statement S and its denial not-S. In logic, it is a fundamental law- the law of non contradiction- that a statement and its denial cannot both be true at the same time. Here are some simple examples of contradictions. 1.

What is oxymoron and give examples?

The most common type of oxymoron is an adjective followed by a noun. One oxymoron example is “deafening silence,” which describes a silence that is so overpowering it almost feels deafening, or extremely loud—just as an actual sound would.

What are examples of non contradictions?

The law of non-contradiction is a rule of logic. It states that if something is true, then the opposite of it is false. For example, if an animal is a cat, the same animal cannot be not a cat. Or, stated in logic, if +p, then not -p, +p cannot be -p at the same time and in the same sense.

What is an example of contradiction?

A contradiction is a situation or ideas in opposition to one another. … Examples of a contradiction in terms include, “the gentle torturer,” “the towering midget,” or “a snowy summer’s day.” A person can also express a contradiction, like the person who professes atheism, yet goes to church every Sunday.

What is an example of a tautology?

In grammatical terms, a tautology is when you use different words to repeat the same idea. For example, the phrase, “It was adequate enough,” is a tautology. The words adequate and enough are two words that convey the same meaning. … In other words, the sentence is always true since it includes both possibilities.

What is the main difference between tautology and contradiction?

Definition: A formula is said to be a Tautology if every truth assignment to its component statements results in the formula being true. A formula is said to be a Contradiction if every truth assignment to its component statements results in the formula being false.

What is the definition of contradictions?

assertion of the contrary or opposite; denial. a statement or proposition that contradicts or denies another or itself and is logically incongruous. direct opposition between things compared; inconsistency.

What is tautology in figure of speech?

A tautology is an expression or phrase that says the same thing twice, just in a different way. For this reason, a tautology is usually undesirable, as it can make you sound wordier than you need to be, and make you appear foolish.

Is period of time a tautology?

Tautology is: It is important to understand that a period of time can be any length, and your premise that ‘a period of time’ repeats the meaning of extensive is incorrect. This also holds for ‘extensive amounts of time’, since amounts of time holds no indication as to the duration.

What is tautology and contradiction?

A tautology is a formula which is “always true” — that is, it is true for every assignment of truth values to its simple components. You can think of a tautology as a rule of logic. The opposite of a tautology is a contradiction, a formula which is “always false”.